NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
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Michael Roach

Cornell University
Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management
Johnson College of Business
Ithaca, NY 14853

E-Mail: EmailAddress: hidden: you can email any NBER-related person as first underscore last at nber dot org
Institutional Affiliation: Cornell University

NBER Working Papers and Publications

September 2019Are Foreign Stem PhDs More Entrepreneurial? Entrepreneurial Characteristics, Preferences and Employment Outcomes of Native and Foreign Science & Engineering PhD Students
with Henry Sauermann, John Skrentny: w26225
Prior research has shown that immigrants make important contributions to US innovation and are more likely than natives to become entrepreneurs. However, there is little evidence on how foreign and native high-skilled workers differ prior to entering the workforce. Moreover, little attention has been paid to distinguishing between founders and employees who join startups. We draw on a longitudinal survey of over 5,600 foreign and native STEM PhD students at U.S. research universities to examine entrepreneurial characteristics and career preferences prior to graduation, as well as founding and employment outcomes after graduation. First, we find that foreign PhD students differ from native PhD students with respect to individual characteristics typically associated with entrepreneurship s...
February 2019Are Foreign STEM Ph.D.s More Entrepreneurial? Entrepreneurial Characteristics, Preferences, and Employment Outcomes of Native and Foreign Science and Engineering Ph.D. Students
with Henry Sauermann, John Skrentny
in The Roles of Immigrants and Foreign Students in U.S. Science, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship, Ina Ganguli, Shulamit Kahn, Megan MacGarvie, editors
Prior research has shown that immigrants to the U.S. make important contributions to innovation and are more likely than natives to become startup founders. These differences may partly reflect labor market conditions and constraints related to visa regulations, as well as individual attributes such as ability or preferences for risk. Although progress has been made in understanding immigrant entrepreneurs, little attention has been paid to another important part of the entrepreneurial workforce – startup employees who “join” founders in their entrepreneurial efforts. In this paper, we draw on unique longitudinal data from over 5,600 foreign and native STEM PhD students at U.S. research universities to examine entrepreneurial characteristics and career preferences prior to graduation, as w...
August 2012Lens or Prism? Patent Citations as a Measure of Knowledge Flows from Public Research
with Wesley M. Cohen: w18292
This paper assesses the validity and accuracy of firms' backward patent citations as a measure of knowledge flows from public research by employing a newly constructed dataset that matches patents to survey data at the level of the R&D lab. Using survey-based measures of the dimensions of knowledge flows, we identify sources of systematic measurement error associated with backward citations to both patent and nonpatent references. We find that patent citations reflect the codified knowledge flows from public research, but they appear to miss knowledge flows that are more private and contract-based in nature, as well as those used in firm basic research. We also find that firms' patenting and citing strategies affect patent citations, making citations less indicative of knowledge flows. In ...

Published: M. Roach and W.M. Cohen, “Lens or Prism? Patent citations as a measure of knowledge flows from public research,” Management Science, February 2013, V. 59, No. 2, pp. 504-525.

 
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