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  • 100% The Impact of Price, Availability, and Alcohol Control Policies on Binge Drinking in College October 1995
    Frank J. Chaloupka, Henry Wechsler

    The effects of beer prices, alcohol availability, and policies related to driving under the influence of alcohol on drinking and binge drinking among youths and young adults are estimated using data from a nationally representative survey of students in U.S. colleges and universities. Drinking participation, participation in binge drinking and level of drinking equations are estimated using appropriate econometric methods. The estimates indicate that the drinking practices of college students are sensitive to the price of beer, with an average estimated price elasticity of drinking participation of -0.066 and an average estimated price elasticity of binge drinking of -0.145. However, when dividing the sample by gender, one finds that the effects of prices on drinking are limited to young women. In addition, a significant negative relationship is found for the strength of policies related to drinking and driving among youths and young adults and drinking by college students. However, the results indicate that many elements of campus life, (including participation in a fraternity or sorority, living on campus, and the ready availability of alcoholic beverages) are among the most important determinants of drinking and binge drinking among college students.

    ...DRINKING IN COLLEGE Frank J. Chaloupka Henry Wechsler Working Paper 5319 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 October 1995 Support for this research has been provided by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. We are indebted to Michael Grossman and Henry Saffer for their helpful comments and to Barbara A. Moeykens for her assistance. This paper is...

    /papers/w5319

  • 99% Youth Alcohol Use and Public Policy February 1993
    Adit Laixuthai, Frank J. Chaloupka

    This paper examines the frequency of youth drinking and heavy drinking in 1982 and 1989. The effects of minimum legal drinking ages and beer excise taxes are considered separately for each year. In both years, drinking is found to be responsive to changes in prices resulting from higher excise taxes. However, the price sensitivity of youth alcohol use fell after the change to a uniform legal drinking age of 21.

    ...drinking and heavy drinking in 1982 and 1989. The effects of minimum legal drinking ages and beer excise taxes are considered separately for each year. In both years, drinking is found to be responsive to changes in prices resulting from higher excise taxes. However, the price sensitivity of youth alcohol use fell after the change to a uniform legal drinking age of 21. Adit Laixuthai Health...

    /papers/w4278

  • 99% Long Term Effects of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Laws on Adult Alcohol Use and Driving Fatalities October 2009
    Robert Kaestner, Benjamin Yarnoff

    We examine whether adult alcohol consumption and traffic fatalities are associated with the legal drinking environment when a person was between the ages of 18 and 20. We find that moving from an environment in which a person was never allowed to drink legally to one in which a person could always drink legally was associated with a 20 to 30 percent increase in alcohol consumption and a ten percent increase in fatal accidents for adult males. There were no statistically significant or practically important associations between the legal drinking environment when young and adult female alcohol consumption and driving fatalities.

    ...LEGAL DRINKING AGE LAWS ON ADULT ALCOHOL USE AND DRIVING FATALITIES Robert Kaestner Benjamin Yarnoff WORKING PAPER 15439 NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES LONG TERM EFFECTS OF MINIMUM LEGAL DRINKING AGE LAWS ON ADULT ALCOHOL USE AND DRIVING FATALITIES Robert Kaestner Benjamin Yarnoff Working Paper 15439 https://www.nber.org/papers/w15439 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050...

    /papers/w15439

  • 99% Effects of Alcoholic Beverage Prices and Legal Drinking Ages on Youth Alcohol Use March 1986
    Douglas Coate, Michael Grossman

    Based on an analysis of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 1976 and 1980, we find that the frequency of the consumption of beer, the most popular alcoholic beverage among youths, is inversely related to the real price of beer and to the minimum legal age for its purchase and consumption. The negative price and legal drinking age effects are by no means limited to reductions in the fraction of youths who consume beer infrequently (less than once a week). Instead, the fractions of youths who consume beer fairly frequently (1-3times a week) and frequently (4-7 times a week) fall more in absolute or percentage terms than the fraction of infrequent drinkers when price or the drinking age rises. These are striking findings because frequent and fairly frequent drinkers are likely to be responsible for a large percentage of youth motor vehicle accidents and deaths. Simulations suggest that, if reductions in youth alcohol use and abuse are desired, both a uniform drinking age of 21 and an increase in the Federal excise tax rate on beer are effective policies to accomplish this goal. They also suggest that the tax policy may be more potent than the drinking age policy.

    ...drinking age policy. Douglas Coate Department of Economics Rutgers University Newark, New Jersey 07102 (201) 648-5259 Michael Grossman Department of Economics City University of New York Graduate School 33 W. 42nd Street New York, New York 10036 (212) 790-4411 EFFECTS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE PRICES AND LEGAL DRINKING AGES ON YOUTH ALCOHOL USE Douglas Coate and Michael Grossman* I. Introduction...

    /papers/w1852

  • 99% The Effect of Alcohol Consumption on Mortality: Regression Discontinuity Evidence from the Minimum Drinking Age September 2007
    Christopher Carpenter, Carlos Dobkin

    This paper estimates the effect of alcohol consumption on mortality using the minimum drinking age in a regression discontinuity design. We find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to large and immediate increases in several measures of alcohol consumption, including a 21 percent increase in the number of days on which people drink. This increase in alcohol consumption results in a discrete 9 percent increase in the mortality rate at age 21. The overall increase in deaths is due primarily to a 14 percent increase in deaths due to motor vehicle accidents, a 30 percent increase in alcohol overdoses and alcohol-related deaths, and a 15 percent increase in suicides. Combining the reduced-form estimates reveals that a 1 percent increase in the number of days a young adult drinks or drinks heavily results in a .4 percent increase in total mortality. Given that mortality due to external causes peaks at about age 21 and that young adults report very high levels of alcohol consumption, our results suggest that public policy interventions to reduce youth drinking can have substantial public health benefits.

    ...DRINKING AGE Christopher Carpenter Carlos Dobkin WORKING PAPER 13374 NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES THE EFFECT OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION ON MORTALITY: REGRESSION DISCONTINUITY EVIDENCE FROM THE MINIMUM DRINKING AGE Christopher Carpenter Carlos Dobkin Working Paper 13374 https://www.nber.org/papers/w13374 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA...

    /papers/w13374

  • 99% Environment and Persistence in Youthful Drinking Patterns January 2001
    Philip J. Cook, Michael J. Moore
    in Risky Behavior among Youths: An Economic Analysis, Jonathan Gruber, editor

    ...age twenty-one. Despite this age-based prohibition, drinking is widespread among teenagers. According to a national survey of high school students, Monitoring the Future (MTF), the thirty-day prevalence of drinking in 1998 among twelfth graders was 52 percent, and over half those (33 percent of the total) said that they had gotten drunk in the previous month; the thirty-day drinking prevalence for...

    /chapters/c10693

  • 99% Endogenous Drinking Age Laws and Highway Mortality Rates of Young Drivers July 1986
    Henry Saffer, Michael Grossman

    This paper presents estimates of the effects of the drinking age and beer taxes on youth motor vehicle mortality. The data set employed is a time series, from 1975 to 1981, of cross sections of the 48 contiguous states. Separate regressions for 15 to 11 year olds, 18 to 20 year olds and 21 to 24 year olds are presented. A simultaneous estimation model is used to account for the endogeneity .of the drinking age. The results show that during the sample period an increase in the drinking age to 21, which is approximately 8 percent, would have reduced mortality in the 18 to 20 year old group by approximately 14 percent. Also a 100 percent increase in the real beer tax, which is approximately $1.50 per case, would reduce highway mortality of 18 to 20 year olds by about 19 percent. This increase in the beer tax would also reduce mortality by about 8 percent for 15 to 17 year olds and by about 18 percent for the 21 to 24 year olds.

    ...drinking age. The results show that during the sample period an increase in the drinking age to 21, which is approximately 8 percent, would have reduced mortality In the 18 to 20 year old group by approximately 14 percent. Also a 100 percent increase in the real beer tax, which is approximately $1.50 per case, would reduce highway mortality of 18 to 20 year olds by about 19 percent. This Increase...

    /papers/w1982

  • 99% Binge Drinking and Risky Sex among College Students April 2010
    Jeffrey S. DeSimone

    This study examines the relationship between binge drinking and sexual behavior in nationally representative data on age 18-24 four-year college students. For having sex, overall or without condoms, large and significant positive associations are eliminated upon holding constant proxies for time-invariant sexual activity and drinking preferences. However, strong relationships persist for sex with multiple recent partners, overall and without condoms, even controlling for substance use, risk aversion, mental health, sports participation, and sexual activity frequency. Promiscuity is unrelated with non-binge drinking but even more strongly related with binge drinking on multiple occasions. Results from a rudimentary instrumental variables strategy and accounting for whether sex is immediately preceded by alcohol use suggest that binge drinking directly leads to risky sex. Some binge drinking-induced promiscuity seems to occur among students, especially males, involved in long-term relationships. Effects are concentrated among non-Hispanic whites and are not apparent for students in two-year schools.

    ...DRINKING AND RISKY SEX AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS Jeffrey S. DeSimone WORKING PAPER 15953 NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES BINGE DRINKING AND RISKY SEX AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS Jeffrey S. DeSimone Working Paper 15953 https://www.nber.org/papers/w15953 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 April 2010 For very helpful comments, I am indebted to...

    /papers/w15953

  • 99% Beer Taxes, the Legal Drinking Age, and Youth Motor Vehicle Fatalities May 1986
    Henry Saffer, Michael Grossman

    Based on a time series of state cross sections for the period from 1975 through 1981, we find that motor vehicle accident mortality rates of youths ages 15 through 17, 18 through 20, and 21 through 24 are negatively related to the real beer excise tax. We also find that the death rate of 18 through 20 year olds is inversely related to the minimum legal age for the purchase of beer. Simulations suggest that the lives of 1,022 youths between the ages of 18 and 20 would have been saved in a typical year during the sample period if the Federal excise tax rate on beer, which has been fixed in nominal terms since 1951, had been indexed to the rate of inflation since 1951. This represents a 15 percent decline in the number of lives lost in fatal crashes. The simulations also suggest that the lives of 555 youths per year would have been saved if the drinking age had been 21 in all states of the U.S. These figures indicate that, if reductions in youth motor vehicle accident deaths are desired, both a uniform drinking age of 21 and an increase in the Federal excise tax rate on beerare effective policies to accomplish this goal. They also indicate that the tax policy may be more potent than the drinking age policy.

    ...Drinking Age, and Youth Motor Vehicle Fatalities ABSTRACT Based on a time series of state cross sections for the period from 1975 through 1981, we find that motor vehicle accident mortality rates of youths ages 15 through 17, 18 through 20, and 21 through 24 are negatively related to the real beer excise tax. We also find that the death rate of 18 through 20 year olds is inversely related to the...

    /papers/w1914

  • 99% Does Drinking Impair College Performance? Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Approach September 2010
    Scott E. Carrell, Mark Hoekstra, James E. West

    This paper examines the effect of alcohol consumption on student achievement. To do so, we exploit the discontinuity in drinking at age 21 at a college in which the minimum legal drinking age is strictly enforced. We find that drinking causes significant reductions in academic performance, particularly for the highest-performing students. This suggests that the negative consequences of alcohol consumption extend beyond the narrow segment of the population at risk of more severe, low-frequency, outcomes.

    DOES DRINKING IMPAIR COLLEGE PERFORMANCE? EVIDENCE FROM A REGRESSION DISCONTINUITY Mark Hoekstra James E. West WORKING PAPER 16330 NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES DOES DRINKING IMPAIR COLLEGE PERFORMANCE? EVIDENCE FROM A REGRESSION DISCONTINUITY APPROACH Scott E. Carrell Mark Hoekstra James E. West Working Paper 16330 https://www.nber.org/papers/w16330 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050...

    /papers/w16330

  • 99% Adolescent Drinking and High School Dropout May 2005
    Pinka Chatterji, Jeff DeSimone

    This paper estimates the effect of binge and frequent drinking by adolescents on subsequent high school dropout using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Young Adults. We estimate an instrumental variables model with an indicator of any past month alcohol use, which is by definition correlated with heavy drinking but should have minimal additional impact on educational outcomes, as the identifying instrument, and also control for a rich set of potentially confounding variables, including maternal characteristics and dropout risk factors measured before and during adolescence. In comparison, OLS provides conservative estimates of the causal impact of heavy drinking on dropping out, implying that binge or frequent drinking among 15 %uF81816 year old students lowers the probability of having graduated or being enrolled in high school four years later by at least 11 percent. Overidentification tests using two measures of maternal youthful alcohol use as additional instruments support our identification strategy.

    ...DRINKING AND HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUT Pinka Chatterji Jeff DeSimone Working Paper 11337 https://www.nber.org/papers/w11337 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 May 2005 We thank Margarita Alegria, Thomas McGuire and Richard Frank for detailed suggestions and participants at the 2005 EXPORT-LRPP meeting for helpful comments. Chatterji acknowledges research...

    /papers/w11337

  • 99% Minimum Drinking Age Laws and Infant Health Outcomes June 2008
    Tara Watson, Angela Fertig

    Alcohol policies have potentially far-reaching impacts on risky sexual behavior, prenatal health behaviors, and subsequent outcomes for infants. We examine whether changes in minimum drinking age (MLDA) laws affect the likelihood of poor birth outcomes. Using data from the National Vital Statistics (NVS) for the years 1978-88, we find that a drinking age of 18 is associated with adverse outcomes among births to young mothers -- including higher incidences of low birth weight and premature birth, but not congenital malformations. The effects are largest among black women. We find suggestive evidence from both the NVS and the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) that the MLDA laws alter the composition of births that occur. In states with lenient drinking laws, young black mothers are more likely to have used alcohol 12 months prior to the birth of their child and less likely to report paternal information on the birth certificate. We suspect that lenient drinking laws generate poor birth outcomes because they increase the number of unplanned pregnancies.

    ...DRINKING AGE LAWS AND INFANT HEALTH OUTCOMES Tara Watson Angela Fertig WORKING PAPER 14118 NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES MINIMUM DRINKING AGE LAWS AND INFANT HEALTH OUTCOMES Tara Watson Angela Fertig Working Paper 14118 https://www.nber.org/papers/w14118 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 June 2008 We are indebted to Phil Cook...

    /papers/w14118

  • 99% High School Alcohol Use and Young Adult Labor Market Outcomes September 2006
    Pinka Chatterji, Jeffrey DeSimone

    We estimate the relationship between 10th grade binge drinking in 1990 and labor market outcomes in 2000 among National Educational Longitudinal Survey respondents. For females, adolescent drinking and adult wages are unrelated, and negative employment effects disappear once academic achievement is held constant. For males, negative employment effects and, more strikingly, positive wage effects persist after controlling for achievement as well as background characteristics, educational attainment, and adult binge drinking and family and job characteristics. Accounting for illegal drug use and other problem behaviors in 10th grade eliminates the unemployment effect, but strengthens the wage effect. As the latter is not explicable by the health, income or social capital justifications that are often used for frequently observed positive correlations between adult alcohol use and earnings, we conjecture that binge drinking conveys unobserved social skills that are rewarded by employers.

    ...drinks in a row, in the past 2 weeks (Johnston, O’Malley & Bachman 2006). In the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, clinically defined criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence are met by 13.5 percent of 17 year olds, 15.0 percent of 18 year olds, and 17.2 percent of 19 year olds (SAMHSA 2004). Many teenagers do not view heavy drinking as risky. For instance, in 2005, 55 percent of...

    /papers/w12529

  • 99% Estimating the Efficacy of Age Based Restrictions on Access to Alcohol
    Carlos Dobkin

    ...Legal Drinking Age (MLDA) and data from California to determine how much an increase in drinking increases criminal behavior. We find that individuals just over age 21 are 32 percent more likely to report having consumed alcohol in the previous month and drink on 70 percent more days than those just under age 21. This greater alcohol consumption results in a 6 percent increase in arrests, which is...

    /conferences/2008/si2008/CRI/dobkin.pdf

  • 99% Habit and Heterogeneity in the Youthful Demand for Alcohol June 1995
    Michael J. Moore, Philip J. Cook

    Observed patterns of youthful drinking indicate substantial persistence. This paper analyzes how much of that persistence reflects the actual development of a habit, and how much is due to unobserved aspects of the individual and the environment. The role of restrictions on alcohol availability, both in the current period and in adolescence, is also explored. We find that much of the observed persistence represents habit formation, and not unobserved characteristics. Consequently, restrictions on availability, particularly at an early age, alter subsequent patterns of alcohol consumption and abuse.

    ...drinking indicate substantial persistence. This paper analyzes how much of that persistence reflects the actual development of a habit, and how much is due to unobserved aspects of the individual and the environment. The role of restrictions on alcohol availability, both in the current period and in adolescence, is also explored. We find that much of the observed persistence represents habit...

    /papers/w5152

  • 99% Do Youths Substitute Alcohol and Marijuana? Some Econometric Evidence February 1994
    Frank J. Chaloupka, Adit Laixuthai

    Data from the 1982 and 1989 Monitoring the Future Surveys are used to examine the substitutability of alcoholic beverages and marijuana among youths. Beer prices and minimum legal drinking ages are used as measures of the full price of alcohol, while an indicator of marijuana decriminalization and its money price capture the full price of marijuana. Results indicate that drinking frequency and heavy drinking episodes are negatively related to beer prices, but positively related to the full price of marijuana. The implications of this substitution for one of the consequences of youth substance abuse, driving while intoxicated, is examined using information on youth non-fatal accidents taken from the surveys and on youth fatal motor vehicle accidents constructed from the Fatal Accident Reporting System. These results indicate that the net effect of an increase in the full price of alcoholic beverages on the probability of a youth traffic crash is negative. However, the opposite is found for marijuana. That is, the results imply that the reduction in accidents resulting from substitution away from alcoholic beverages and other intoxicating substances to marijuana as its full price is lower more than offsets the increase in accidents related to marijuana use.

    ...drinking ages are used as measures of the full price of alcohol, while an indicator of marijuana decriminalization and its money price capture the full price of marijuana. Results indicate that drinking frequency and heavy drinking episodes are negatively related to beer prices, but positively related to the full price of marijuana. The implications of this substitution for one of the consequences...

    /papers/w4662

  • 99% Effects of Alcohol Price Policy on Youth June 1993
    Michael Grossman, Frank J. Chaloupka, Henry Saffer, Adit Laixuthai

    In this paper we summarize research that deals with the effects of alcoholic beverage prices and excise taxes on a variety of outcomes for youth. These include alcohol consumption, excessive consumption, motor vehicle accident mortality, and college completion rates. The research employs six nationally representative data sets on individuals that span the period from 1974 through 1989 and two state level data sets for the years 1975-1981 and 19821988. The studies find that alcohol use and motor vehicle accident mortality are negatively related to the cost of alcohol. College completion rates are positively related to this variable. Clearly, these are policy-relevant findings since price is a policy-manipulable variable. Frequently, the effects of a variety of simulated excise tax hikes exceed those of the uniform minimum legal drinking age of 21 in all states.

    ...drinking age of 21 in all states. Michael Grossman CUNY Graduate School 269 Mercer Street, 8th Floor New York, NY 10003 (212) 995-3462 and NBER Henry Saffer Kean College of New Jersey 269 Mercer Street, 8th Floor New York, NY 10003 (212) 995-3455 and NBER Frank J. Chaloupka Department of Economics University of Illinois at Chicago 601 South Morgan Street Chicago, IL 60607-7121 and NBER Adit...

    /papers/w4385

  • 99% The Myth of the Drinker's Bonus December 2005
    Philip J. Cook, Bethany Peters

    Drinkers earn more than non-drinkers, even after controlling for human capital and local labor market conditions. Several mechanisms by which drinking could increase productivity have been proposed but are unconfirmed; the more obvious mechanisms predict the opposite, that drinking can impair productivity. In this paper we reproduce the positive association between drinking and earnings, using data for adults age 27-34 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979). Since drinking is endogenous in this relationship, we then estimate a reduced-form equation, with alcohol prices (proxied by a new index of excise taxes) replacing the drinking variables. We find strong evidence that the prevalence of full-time work increases with alcohol prices %u2013 suggesting that a reduction in drinking increases the labor supply. We also demonstrate some evidence of a positive association between alcohol prices and the earnings of full-time workers. We conclude that most likely the positive association between drinking and earnings is the result of the fact that ethanol is a normal commodity, the consumption of which increases with income, rather than an elixer that enhances productivity.

    ...drinking can impair productivity. In this paper we reproduce the positive association between drinking and earnings, using data for adults age 27-34 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979). Since drinking is endogenous in this relationship, we then estimate a reduced-form equation, with alcohol prices (proxied by a new index of excise taxes) replacing the drinking variables. We...

    /papers/w11902

  • 99% Teen Drinking and Education Attainment: Evidence From Two-Sample Instrumental Variables (TSIV) Estimates July 1997
    Thomas S. Dee, William N. Evans

    Recent research has suggested that one of the important consequences of teen drinking is reduced scholastic achievement and that state excise taxes on beer and minimum legal drinking ages (MLDA) as policy instruments can have a positive impact on educational attainment. But there is reason to ask whether the results are empirically sound. Prior research as assumed the decision to drink is made independently of schooling decisions and estimations that have recognized potential simultaneity in these decisions may be poorly identified since they rely only on the cross-state variation in beer taxes and MLDA as exogenous determinants of teen drinking. A more convincing strategy would rely on the within-state variation in alcohol availability over time. We use the increases in the state MLDA during the late 70's and 80's as an exogenous source of variation in teen drinking. Using data from the 1977-92 Monitoring the Future (MTF) surveys, we show that teens with an MLDA of 18 were more likely to drink than teens with a higher drinking age. If teen drinking did reduce educational attainment then it should have risen within a state after the MLDA was increased. Using data from over 1.3 million respondents from the 1960-1969 birth cohorts in the 1990 Public-Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) we find that changes in the MLDA had small effects on educational attainment measured by high school completion, college entrance and completion. A new method developed by Angrist and Krueger (1992, 1995) lets us tie these results together. Using matched cohorts from the MTF and PUMS data sets, we report two-sample instrumental variables (TSIV) estimates of the effect of teen drinking on educational attainment. These estimates are smaller than corresponding single-equation probit estimates, indicating that teen drinking does not have an independent effect on educational attainment.

    ...TEEN DRINKING AND EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT: EVIDENCE FROM TWO-SAMPLE INSTRUMENTAL VARIABLES (TSIV) ESTIMATES Thomas S. Dee William N. Evans Working Paper 6082 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 July 1997 The authors wish to thank Ed Montgomery, Wallace Oates, John Shea, Judy Hellerstein and Bob Schwab for a number of helpful comments. Thomas Dee...

    /papers/w6082

  • 99% Alcohol, Marijuana, and American Youth: The Unintended Effects of Government Regulation November 1992
    John DiNardo, Thomas Lemieux

    This paper analyzes the impact of increases in the minimum drinking age on the prevalence of alcohol and marijuana consumption among high school seniors in the United States. The empirical analysis is based on a large sample of students from 43 states over the years 1980- 1989. We find that increases in the minimum drinking age did reduce the prevalence of alcohol consumption. We also find, however, that increased legal minimum drinking ages had the unintended consequence of increasing the prevalence of marijuana consumption. We estimate a model based on the canonical theory of the consumer. Estimates from this model suggest that this unintended consequence is attributable to standard substitution effects. The estimates of the structural model also suggest that an increased drinking age helps create a climate of societal disapproval for all drug use, not only alcohol. We find that holding the consumption of alcohol constant, an increase in the drinking age reduces the prevalence of marijuana consumption. This effect is not large enough, however, to offset the large substitution toward marijuana induced by the decreased prevalence of alcohol consumption.

    ...drinking age on the prevalence of alcohol and marijuana consumption among high school seniors in the United States. The empirical analysis is based on a large sample of studrr.ts from 43 stales over the years 19S0-1989. We find that increases in the minimum drinking s;; did reduce the prevalence of alcohol consumption. We also find, however, that increased itgal minimum drinking ages had the...

    /papers/w4212

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