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  • 100% What Do Test Scores Miss? The Importance of Teacher Effects on Non-Test Score Outcomes May 2016
    C. Kirabo Jackson

    This paper extends the traditional test-score value-added model of teacher quality to allow for the possibility that teachers affect a variety of student outcomes through their effects on both students’ cognitive and noncognitive skill. Results show that teachers have effects on skills not measured by test-scores, but reflected in absences, suspensions, course grades, and on-time grade progression. Teacher effects on these non-test-score outcomes in 9th grade predict effects on high-school completion and predictors of college-going—above and beyond their effects on test scores. Relative to using only test-score measures of teacher quality, including both test-score and non-test-score measures more than doubles the predictable variability of teacher effects on these longer-run outcomes.

    ...OF TEACHER EFFECTS ON NON-TEST SCORE OUTCOMES C. Kirabo Jackson Working Paper 22226 https://www.nber.org/papers/w22226 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 May 2016 This paper represents a sizable revision and reworking of NBER Working Paper No. 18624 titled "Non-Cognitive Ability, Test Scores, and Teacher Quality: Evidence from 9th Grade Teachers in...

    /papers/w22226

  • 99% Estimating Teacher Impacts on Student Achievement: An Experimental Evaluation December 2008
    Thomas J. Kane, Douglas O. Staiger

    We used a random-assignment experiment in Los Angeles Unified School District to evaluate various non-experimental methods for estimating teacher effects on student test scores. Having estimated teacher effects during a pre-experimental period, we used these estimates to predict student achievement following random assignment of teachers to classrooms. While all of the teacher effect estimates we considered were significant predictors of student achievement under random assignment, those that controlled for prior student test scores yielded unbiased predictions and those that further controlled for mean classroom characteristics yielded the best prediction accuracy. In both the experimental and non-experimental data, we found that teacher effects faded out by roughly 50 percent per year in the two years following teacher assignment.

    ...TEACHER IMPACTS ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT: AN EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION Thomas J. Kane Douglas O. Staiger WORKING PAPER 14607 NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES ESTIMATING TEACHER IMPACTS ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT: AN EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION Thomas J. Kane Douglas O. Staiger Working Paper 14607 https://www.nber.org/papers/w14607 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts...

    /papers/w14607

  • 99% The Value of Smarter Teachers: International Evidence on Teacher Cognitive Skills and Student Performance December 2014
    Eric A. Hanushek, Marc Piopiunik, Simon Wiederhold

    International differences in teacher quality are commonly hypothesized to be a key determinant of the large international student performance gaps, but lack of consistent quality measures has precluded testing this. We construct country-level measures of teacher cognitive skills using unique assessment data for 31 countries. We find substantial differences in teacher cognitive skills across countries that are strongly related to student performance. Results are supported by fixed-effects estimation exploiting within-country between-subject variation in teacher skills. A series of robustness and placebo tests indicate a systematic influence of teacher skills as distinct from overall differences among countries in the level of cognitive skills. Moreover, observed country variations in teacher cognitive skills are significantly related to differences in women’s access to high-skill occupations outside teaching and to salary premiums for teachers.

    ...ON TEACHER COGNITIVE SKILLS AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE Eric A. Hanushek Marc Piopiunik Simon Wiederhold Working Paper 20727 https://www.nber.org/papers/w20727 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 December 2014, Revised March 2018 We would like to thank William Thorn, Veronica Borg, Vanessa Denis, and Francois Keslair for access to and help with the...

    /papers/w20727

  • 99% Do Principals Fire the Worst Teachers? February 2010
    Brian A. Jacob

    This paper takes advantage of a unique policy change to examine how principals make decisions regarding teacher dismissal. In 2004, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) and Chicago Teachers Union (CTU) signed a new collective bargaining agreement that gave principals the flexibility to dismiss probationary teachers for any reason and without the documentation and hearing process that is typically required for such dismissals. With the cooperation of the CPS, I matched information on all teachers that were eligible for dismissal with records indicating which teachers were dismissed. With this data, I estimate the relative weight that school administrators place on a variety of teacher characteristics. I find evidence that principals do consider teacher absences and value-added measures, along with several demographic characteristics, in determining which teachers to dismiss.

    ...teacher quality traditionally have focused on the supply side of the teacher labor market. Many studies have documented that both wages and working conditions play important roles in teacher mobility (Dolton & van der Klaauw 1999; Hanushek et al. 2005; Scafidi, Stinebrickner, & Sjoquist 2003; Stinebrickner 1998, 2002; Boyd, Lankford, Loeb, & Wyckoff 2005), and recent evidence suggests that...

    /papers/w15715

  • 99% Match Quality, Worker Productivity, and Worker Mobility: Direct Evidence From Teachers May 2010
    C. Kirabo Jackson

    I investigate the importance of the match between teachers and schools for student achievement. I show that teacher effectiveness increases after a move to a different school, and I estimate teacher-school match effects using a mixed-effects estimator. Match quality "explains away" a quarter of, and has two-thirds the explanatory power of teacher quality. Match quality is negatively correlated with turnover, unrelated with exit, and increases with experience. This paper provides the first estimates of worker-firm match quality using output data as opposed to inferring productivity from wages or employment durations. Because teacher wages are essentially unrelated to productivity, this is compelling evidence that workers may seek high-quality matches for reasons other than higher pay.

    ...teacher effectiveness is higher after a move to a different school, and I estimate teacher-school match effects using a mixed effects estimator. Match quality can "explain away" a quarter of, and is as economically important as, teacher quality. Supporting models of worker mobility, teachers tend to exit schools with which match quality is low, and match quality is increasing in experience. This...

    /papers/w15990

  • 99% Teaching Students and Teaching Each Other: The Importance of Peer Learning for Teachers August 2009
    C. Kirabo Jackson, Elias Bruegmann

    Using longitudinal elementary school teacher and student data, we document that students have larger test score gains when their teachers experience improvements in the observable characteristics of their colleagues. Using within-school and within-teacher variation, we further show that a teacher's students have larger achievement gains in math and reading when she has more effective colleagues (based on estimated value-added from an out-of-sample pre-period). Spillovers are strongest for less-experienced teachers and persist over time, and historical peer quality explains away about twenty percent of the own-teacher effect, results that suggest peer learning.

    ...teacher variation, we further show that a teacher’s students have larger achievement gains in math and reading when she has more effective colleagues (based on estimated value-added from an out-of-sample pre-period). Spillovers are strongest for less-experienced teachers and persist over time, and historical peer quality explains away about twenty percent of the own-teacher effect, results that...

    /papers/w15202

  • 99% Teacher Expectations Matter November 2018
    Nicholas W. Papageorge, Seth Gershenson, Kyung Min Kang

    We develop and estimate a joint model of the education and teacher-expectation production functions that identifies both the distribution of biases in teacher expectations and the impact of those biases on student outcomes via self-fulfilling prophecies. Our approach leverages a unique feature of a nationally representative dataset: two teachers provided their educational expectations for each student. Identification of causal effects exploits teacher disagreements about the same student, an idea we formalize using lessons from the measurement error literature. We provide novel, arguably causal evidence that teacher expectations affect students' educational attainment: Estimates suggest an elasticity of college completion with respect to teachers' expectations of about 0.12. On average, teachers are overly optimistic about students' ability to complete a four-year college degree. However, the degree of over-optimism of white teachers is significantly larger for white students than for black students. This highlights a nuance that is frequently overlooked in discussions of biased beliefs: less biased (i.e., more accurate) beliefs can be counterproductive if there are positive returns to optimism or if there are socio-demographic gaps in the degree of teachers' optimism; we find evidence of both.

    ...TEACHER EXPECTATIONS MATTER Nicholas W. Papageorge Seth Gershenson Kyung Min Kang Working Paper 25255 https://www.nber.org/papers/w25255 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 November 2018 We gratefully acknowledge helpful comments from conference participants at the North American Meetings of the Econometric Society and the IZA Junior-Senior Labor...

    /papers/w25255

  • 99% Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS January 2016
    Melinda Adnot, Thomas Dee, Veronica Katz, James Wyckoff

    In practice, teacher turnover appears to have negative effects on school quality as measured by student performance. However, some simulations suggest that turnover can instead have large, positive effects under a policy regime in which low-performing teachers can be accurately identified and replaced with more effective teachers. This study examines this question by evaluating the effects of teacher turnover on student achievement under IMPACT, the unique performance-assessment and incentive system in the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS). Employing a quasi-experimental design based on data from the first year years of IMPACT, we find that, on average, DCPS replaced teachers who left with teachers who increased student achievement by 0.08 SD in math. When we isolate the effects of lower-performing teachers who were induced to leave DCPS for poor performance, we find that student achievement improves by larger and statistically significant amounts (i.e., 0.14 SD in reading and 0.21 SD in math). In contrast, the effect of exits by teachers not sanctioned under IMPACT is typically negative but not statistically significant.

    ...SERIES TEACHER TURNOVER, TEACHER QUALITY, AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN DCPS Melinda Adnot Thomas Dee Veronica Katz James Wyckoff Working Paper 21922 https://www.nber.org/papers/w21922 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 January 2016 We are grateful to the District of Columbia Public Schools for the data employed in this paper and to Scott Thompson, Kim...

    /papers/w21922

  • 99% Constrained Job Matching: Does Teacher Job Search Harm Disadvantaged Urban Schools? March 2010
    Eric A. Hanushek, Steven G. Rivkin

    Search theory suggests that early career job changes on balance lead to better matches that benefit both workers and firms, but this may not hold in teacher labor markets characterized by salary rigidities, barriers to entry, and substantial differences in working conditions that are difficult for institutions to alter. Of particular concern to education policy makers is the possibility that teacher turnover adversely affects the quality of instruction in schools serving predominantly disadvantaged children. Although such schools experience higher turnover on average than others, the impact on the quality of instruction depends crucially on whether it is the more productive teachers who are more likely to depart. The absence of direct measures of productivity typically hinders efforts to measure the effect of turnover on worker quality. In the case of teachers, however, the availability of matched panel data of students and teachers, enables the isolation of the contributions of teachers to achievement despite the complications of purposeful choices of families, teachers, and administrators. The empirical analysis reveals that teachers who remain in their school tend to outperform those who leave, particularly those who exit the Texas public schools entirely. Moreover, this gap appears to be larger for schools serving predominantly low income students, evidence that high turnover is not nearly as damaging as many suggest.

    ...TEACHER JOB SEARCH HARM DISADVANTAGED URBAN SCHOOLS? Eric A. Hanushek Steven G. Rivkin WORKING PAPER 15816 NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES CONSTRAINED JOB MATCHING: DOES TEACHER JOB SEARCH HARM DISADVANTAGED URBAN SCHOOLS? Eric A. Hanushek Steven G. Rivkin Working Paper 15816 https://www.nber.org/papers/w15816 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts Avenue...

    /papers/w15816

  • 99% The Effect of Employment Protection on Worker Effort: Evidence from Public Schooling February 2010
    Brian A. Jacob

    This paper studies the effect of employment protection on worker productivity and firm output in the context of a public school system. In 2004, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) and Chicago Teachers Union (CTU) signed a new collective bargaining agreement that gave principals the flexibility to dismiss probationary teachers (defined as those with less than five years of experience) for any reason, and without the elaborate documentation and hearing process typical in many large, urban school districts. Results suggest that the policy reduced annual teacher absences by roughly 10 percent and reduced the prevalence of teachers with 15 or more annual absences by 20 percent. The effects were strongest among teachers in elementary schools and in low-achieving, predominantly African-American high schools, and among teachers with highpredicted absences. There is also evidence that the impact of the policy increased substantially after its first year.

    ...Teacher Project. Thanks to Elias Walsh, Mimi Engel, Sharon Traiberman and Stephanie Rennane for excellent research assistance. Thanks to Kerwin Charles, John DiNardo, Lars Lefgren, Jonah Rockoff and Ioana Marinescu and seminar participants at the University of Michigan, University of Chicago, University of Wisconsin, Madison and UC Davis for helpful comments and suggestions. Any errors are...

    /papers/w15655

  • 99% The Economic Value of Higher Teacher Quality December 2010
    Eric A. Hanushek

    Most analyses of teacher quality end without any assessment of the economic value of altered teacher quality. This paper combines information about teacher effectiveness with the economic impact of higher achievement. It begins with an overview of what is known about the relationship between teacher quality and student achievement. This provides the basis for consideration of the derived demand for teachers that comes from their impact on economic outcomes. Alternative valuation methods are based on the impact of increased achievement on individual earnings and on the impact of low teacher effectiveness on economic growth through aggregate achievement. A teacher one standard deviation above the mean effectiveness annually generates marginal gains of over $400,000 in present value of student future earnings with a class size of 20 and proportionately higher with larger class sizes. Alternatively, replacing the bottom 5-8 percent of teachers with average teachers could move the U.S. near the top of international math and science rankings with a present value of $100 trillion.

    ...TEACHER QUALITY Eric A. Hanushek WORKING PAPER 16606 NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF HIGHER TEACHER QUALITY Eric A. Hanushek Working Paper 16606 https://www.nber.org/papers/w16606 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 December 2010 This paper benefitted from extensive and insightful comments by Martin West. Valuable research...

    /papers/w16606

  • 99% The Fiscal Cost of Weak Governance: Evidence from Teacher Absence in India July 2014
    Karthik Muralidharan, Jishnu Das, Alaka Holla, Aakash Mohpal

    We construct a new nationally-representative panel dataset of schools across 1297 villages in India and find that the large investments in public primary education over the past decade have led to substantial improvements in input-based measures of school quality, including infrastructure, pupil-teacher ratios, and monitoring. However, teacher absence continues to be high, with 23.6 percent of teachers in public schools across rural India being absent during unannounced visits to schools. Improvements in school infrastructure and service conditions are not correlated with lower teacher absence. We find two robust correlations in the nationally-representative panel data that corroborate findings from smaller-scale experiments. First, reductions in pupil-teacher ratios are correlated with increased teacher absence. Second, increases in the frequency of inspections are strongly correlated with lower teacher absence. We estimate that the fiscal cost of teacher absence in India is around $1.5 billion per year, and that investing in better governance by hiring more inspectors to increase the frequency of monitoring could be over ten times more cost effective at increasing teacher-student contact time (net of teacher absence) than hiring more teachers.

    ...FROM TEACHER ABSENCE IN INDIA Karthik Muralidharan Jishnu Das Alaka Holla Aakash Mohpal Working Paper 20299 https://www.nber.org/papers/w20299 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 July 2014 We are especially grateful to Michael Kremer for his involvement as a collaborator in the early stages of this project and for subsequent discussions. We thank Julie...

    /papers/w20299

  • 99% Teacher Performance and Accountability Incentives June 2018
    Hugh Macartney, Robert McMillan, Uros Petronijevic

    This paper documents a new empirical regularity: teacher value-added increases within-teacher when accountability incentives are strengthened. That finding motivates a strategy to separate value-added into incentive-varying teacher effort and incentive-invariant teacher ability, combining rich longitudinal data with exogenous incentive-policy variation. Our estimates indicate that teacher effort and ability both raise current and future test scores, with ability having stronger effects. These estimates feed into a framework for comparing the cost-effectiveness of alternative education policies. For illustration, we show incentive-oriented reforms can outperform policies targeting teacher ability, given their potential to influence all teachers rather than a subset.

    ...TEACHER PERFORMANCE AND ACCOUNTABILITY INCENTIVES Hugh Macartney Robert McMillan Uros Petronijevic Working Paper 24747 https://www.nber.org/papers/w24747 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 June 2018 We would like to thank Raj Chetty, Damon Clark, Peter Cziraki, John Friedman, Caroline Hoxby, Magne Mogstad, Louis-Philippe Morin, Juan Carlos Suárez...

    /papers/w24747

  • 99% Do Teacher Absences Impact Student Achievement? Longitudinal Evidence from One Urban School District August 2007
    Raegen T. Miller, Richard J. Murnane, John B. Willett

    Rates of employee absences and the effects of absences on productivity are topics of conversation in many organizations in many countries. One reason is that high rates of employee absence may signal weak management and poor labor-management relations. A second reason is that reducing rates of employee absence may be an effective way to improve productivity. This paper reports the results of a study of employee absences in education, a large, labor-intensive industry. Policymakers' concern with teacher absence rests on three premises: (1) that a significant portion of teachers' absences is discretionary, (2) that teachers' absences have a nontrivial impact on productivity, and (3) that feasible policy changes could reduce rates of absence among teachers. This paper presents the results of an empirical investigation of the first two of these premises; it discusses the third premise. We employ a methodology that accounts for time-invariant differences among teachers in skill and motivation. We find large variation in adjusted teacher absence rates among schools. We estimate that each 10 days of teacher absences reduce students' mathematics achievement by 3.3 percent of a standard deviation.

    ...TEACHER ABSENCES IMPACT STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT? LONGITUDINAL EVIDENCE FROM ONE URBAN SCHOOL DISTRICT Raegen T. Miller Richard J. Murnane John B. Willett WORKING PAPER 13356 NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES DO TEACHER ABSENCES IMPACT STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT? LONGITUDINAL EVIDENCE FROM ONE URBAN SCHOOL DISTRICT Raegen T. Miller Richard J. Murnane John B. Willett Working Paper 13356 http...

    /papers/w13356

  • 99% Validating Teacher Effect Estimates Using Changes in Teacher Assignments in Los Angeles November 2014
    Andrew Bacher-Hicks, Thomas J. Kane, Douglas O. Staiger

    In a widely cited study, Chetty, Friedman, and Rockoff (2014a; hereafter CFR) evaluate the degree of bias in teacher value-added estimates using a novel "teacher switching" research design with data from New York City. They conclude that there is little to no bias in their estimates. Using the same model with data from North Carolina, Rothstein (2014) argued that the CFR research design is invalid, given a relationship between student baseline test scores and teachers' value-added. In this paper, we replicated the CFR analysis using data from the Los Angeles Unified School District and similarly found that teacher value-added estimates were valid predictors of student achievement. We also demonstrate that Rothstein's test does not invalidate the CFR design and instead reflects a mechanical relationship, given that teacher value-added scores from prior years and baseline test scores can be based on the same data. In addition, we explore the (1) predictive validity of value-added estimates drawn from the same, similar, and different schools, (2) an alternative way of estimating differences in access to effective teaching by taking teacher experience into account, and (3) the implications of alternative ways of imputing value-added when it cannot be estimated directly.

    ...TEACHER EFFECT ESTIMATES USING CHANGES IN TEACHER ASSIGNMENTS IN LOS ANGELES Andrew Bacher-Hicks Thomas J. Kane Douglas O. Staiger Working Paper 20657 https://www.nber.org/papers/w20657 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 November 2014 We thank Raj Chetty for helpful discussions and comments. Thomas J. Kane served as an expert witness for Gibson, Dunn...

    /papers/w20657

  • 99% The Compositional Effect of Rigorous Teacher Evaluation on Workforce Quality November 2016
    Julie Berry Cullen, Cory Koedel, Eric Parsons

    Improving public sector workforce quality is challenging in sectors such as education where worker productivity is difficult to assess and manager incentives are muted by political and bureaucratic constraints. In this paper, we study how providing improved information to principals about teacher effectiveness and encouraging them to use the information in personnel decisions affects the composition of teacher turnovers. Our setting is the Houston Independent School District, which recently implemented a rigorous teacher evaluation system. Prior to the new system, teacher effectiveness was negatively correlated with district exit and we show that the policy significantly strengthened this relationship, primarily by increasing the relative likelihood of exit for teachers in the bottom quintile of the quality distribution. Low-performing teachers working in low-achieving schools were especially likely to leave. However, despite the success, the implied change to the quality of the workforce overall is too small to have a detectable impact on student achievement.

    ...TEACHER EVALUATION ON WORKFORCE QUALITY Julie Berry Cullen Cory Koedel Eric Parsons Working Paper 22805 https://www.nber.org/papers/w22805 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 November 2016, Revised July 2017 Cullen is in the Department of Economics at the University of California, San Diego. Koedel is in the Department of Economics and Truman School...

    /papers/w22805

  • 99% Teacher Credentials and Student Achievement in High School: A Cross-Subject Analysis with Student Fixed Effects November 2007
    Charles T. Clotfelter, Helen F. Ladd, Jacob L. Vigdor

    We use data on statewide end-of-course tests in North Carolina to examine the relationship between teacher credentials and student achievement at the high school level. The availability of test scores in multiple subjects for each student permits us to estimate a model with student fixed effects, which helps minimize any bias associated with the non-random distribution of teachers and students among classrooms within schools. We find compelling evidence that teacher credentials affect student achievement in systematic ways and that the magnitudes are large enough to be policy relevant. As a result, the uneven distribution of teacher credentials by race and socio-economic status of high school students -- a pattern we also document -- contributes to achievement gaps in high school.

    TEACHER CREDENTIALS AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN HIGH SCHOOL: A CROSS-SUBJECT ANALYSIS. WITH STUDENT FIXED EFFECTS Charles T. Clotfelter Helen F. Ladd Jacob L. Vigdor WORKING PAPER 13617 NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES TEACHER CREDENTIALS AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN HIGH SCHOOL: A CROSS-SUBJECT ANALYSIS WITH STUDENT FIXED EFFECTS Charles T. Clotfelter Helen F. Ladd Jacob L. Vigdor...

    /papers/w13617

  • 99% Principals as Agents: Subjective Performance Measurement in Education July 2005
    Brian A. Jacob, Lars Lefgren

    In this paper, we compare subjective principal assessments of teachers to the traditional determinants of teacher compensation ¡V education and experience ¡V and another potential compensation mechanism -- value-added measures of teacher effectiveness based on student achievement gains. We find that subjective principal assessments of teachers predict future student achievement significantly better than teacher experience, education or actual compensation, though not as well as value-added teacher quality measures. In particular, principals appear quite good at identifying those teachers who produce the largest and smallest standardized achievement gains in their schools, but have far less ability to distinguish between teachers in the middle of this distribution and systematically discriminate against male and untenured faculty. Moreover, we find that a principal¡'s overall rating of a teacher is a substantially better predictor of future parent requests for that teacher than either the teacher¡'s experience, education and current compensation or the teacher¡'s value-added achievement measure. These findings not only inform education policy, but also shed light on subjective performance assessment more generally.

    ...teacher compensation - education and experience - and another potential compensation mechanism -- value-added measures of teacher e ffectiveness based on student achievement gains. We find that subjective principal assessments of teachers predict future student achievement significantly better than teacher experience, e ducation or actual compensation, though not as well as value-added teacher...

    /papers/w11463

  • 99% The Market for Teacher Quality February 2005
    Eric A. Hanushek, John F. Kain, Daniel M. O'Brien, Steven G. Rivkin

    Much of education policy focuses on improving teacher quality, but most policies lack strong research support. We use student achievement gains to estimate teacher value-added, our measure of teacher quality. The analysis reveals substantial variation in the quality of instruction, most of which occurs within rather than between schools. Although teacher quality appears to be unrelated to advanced degrees or certification, experience does matter -- but only in the first year of teaching. We also find that good teachers tend to be effective with all student ability levels but that there is a positive value of matching students and teachers by race. In the second part of the analysis, we show that teachers staying in our sample of urban schools tend to be as good as or better than those who exit. Thus, the main cost of large turnover is the introduction of more first year teachers. Finally, there is little or no evidence that districts that offer higher salaries and have better working conditions attract the higher quality teachers among those who depart the central city district. The overall results have a variety of direct policy implications for the design of school accountability and the compensation of teachers.

    ...FOR TEACHER QUALITY Eric A. Hanushek John F. Kain Daniel M. O’Brien Steven G. Rivkin Working Paper 11154 https://www.nber.org/papers/w11154 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 February 2005 John Kain participated in the development of this project but sadly died before its completion. This paper benefited from early discussions with Larry Katz and from...

    /papers/w11154

  • 99% Identifying Effective Classroom Practices Using Student Achievement Data March 2010
    Thomas J. Kane, Eric S. Taylor, John H. Tyler, Amy L. Wooten

    Recent research has confirmed both the importance of teachers in producing student achievement growth and in the variability across teachers in the ability to do that. Such findings raise the stakes on our ability to identify effective teachers and teaching practices. This paper combines information from classroom-based observations and measures of teachers' ability to improve student achievement as a step toward addressing these challenges. We find that classroom based measures of teaching effectiveness are related in substantial ways to student achievement growth. Our results point to the promise of teacher evaluation systems that would use information from both classroom observations and student test scores to identify effective teachers. Our results also offer information on the types of practices that are most effective at raising achievement.

    ...teacher quality” or “teacher effectiveness”. Despite the outpouring of interest, little has changed in the way that teachers are evaluated and compensated, in the content of pre-service training, or in the type of professional development offered. The primary stumbling block has been a lack of consensus on valid measures for recognizing and rewarding effective teaching. On one hand, a...

    /papers/w15803

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