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David Galenson (57 NBER publications or working papers)
https://www.nber.org/people/david_galenson


Displaying 0 - 20 of 500 results. More results.

  • 100% Late Bloomers in the Arts and Sciences: Answers and Questions March 2010
    David Galenson

    Recent research has shown that all the arts have had important practitioners of two different types -- conceptual innovators who make their greatest contributions early in their careers, and experimental innovators who produce their greatest work later in their lives. This contradicts a persistent but mistaken belief that artistic creativity has been dominated by the young. We do not yet have systematic studies of the relative importance of conceptual and experimental innovators in the sciences. But in the absence of such studies, it may be damaging for economic growth to continue to assume that innovations in science are made only by the young.

    ...David Galenson. All rights reserved. Short sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission provided that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. Late Bloomers in the Arts and Sciences: Answers and Questions David Galenson NBER Working Paper No. 15838 March 2010 JEL No. Z11 ABSTRACT Recent research has shown that all the arts have had...

    /papers/w15838

  • 99% Understanding Creativity May 2010
    David W. Galenson

    The discipline of economics has traditionally refused to study the behavior and achievements of specific individuals. Yet creativity - a primary source of the technological change that drives economic growth - is largely the domain of extraordinary individuals or small groups. For the first time in the history of the discipline, within the last decade economists have begun to study how these extraordinary individuals make their discoveries, and the results have been dramatic. Research done to date has demonstrated that artistic innovators can usefully be divided into two types. Experimental innovators seek to record their perceptions. They proceed tentatively, by trial and error, building their skills gradually, and making their greatest contributions late in their lives. In contrast, conceptual innovators use their art to express ideas and emotions. The precision of their goals allows them to plan their work, and execute it decisively. Their most radical new ideas, and consequently their greatest innovations, occur early in their careers. The research that has established these patterns has several central components. A key element is the systematic measurement of an artist's creativity over the course of the life cycle: this not only establishes when the artist made his greatest contribution, but also provides an objective identification of his greatest innovation. This facilitates another key element of the research, the categorization of the artist as experimental or conceptual. This effectively depends on whether the artist works inductively, building his contribution incrementally from observation, or deductively, creating his innovation as a consequence of a new idea. These patterns have been established empirically, by a large number of studies of important practitioners of a wide range of arts. It is now time to extend economic research on creativity, by applying this analysis to other intellectual domains. It is important to recognize that economists' failure to study individuals has prevented them from understanding the sources of the contributions of the most productive people in our society. Breaking this disciplinary taboo may now allow us not only to understand, but perhaps also to increase, the creativity of these remarkable individuals, and to help others to follow them.

    Galenson. All rights reserved. Short sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission provided that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. Understanding Creativity David W. Galenson NBER Working Paper No. 16024 May 2010 JEL No. Z11 ABSTRACT The discipline of economics has traditionally refused to study the behavior and achievements of...

    /papers/w16024

  • 99% galenson

    ...W. Galenson (1) At what stage of their lives are great innovators most creative? There are two very different answers to this question. Some great innovators make their most important discoveries suddenly, very early in their careers. In contrast, others arrive at their major contributions gradually, late in their lives, after decades of work. Which of these two life cycles a particular...

    /reporter/fall03/galenson.html

  • 99% Analyzing Artistic Innovation: The Greatest Breakthroughs of the Twentieth Century May 2006
    David W. Galenson

    This paper considers not only when in their careers the greatest artists of the twentieth century made their greatest discoveries, but also how quickly they made them. The results underscore the dominant position of Picasso and Cubism in twentieth-century art: Picasso alone accounts for the two best three-year periods produced by any artist, and he and Braque account for three of the best five-year periods, all for the work the two young artists did in developing Cubism. Warhol%u2019s innovations in Pop art and Matisse%u2019s development of Fauvism also rank among the century%u2019s most important breakthroughs. In general, identifying the most important short periods of artistic creativity emphasizes the differing methods of conceptual and experimental artists: great conceptual innovators, like Picasso, Matisse, and Warhol, made their greatest discoveries abruptly, whereas great experimental innovators, like Mondrian, Kandinsky, and Pollock, made their discoveries more gradually. The finding that artists who innovate early in their lives do so suddenly, while those who innovate late do so more gradually, adds an important dimension to our understanding of human creativity.

    Galenson. All rights reserved. Short sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission provided that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. Analyzing Artistic Innovation: The Greatest Breakthroughs of the Twentieth Century David W. Galenson NBER Working Paper No. 12185 April 2006 JEL No. ABSTRACT This paper considers not only when in...

    /papers/w12185

  • 98% The Economics of Latin American Art: Creativity Patterns and Rates of Return February 2004
    Sebastian Edwards

    In this paper I use a large data set to analyze two aspects of the Latin American arts: (1) the nature of artistic creative process, and (2) Latin American art as an investment. I use data on auctions to understand the relation between artists' age and the value of their work. The analysis on creativity suggests that Latin American artists have followed very different patterns from that followed by U.S. artists. There is strong evidence suggesting that American artists born after 1920 did their best work at an earlier age than their older colleagues; exactly the opposite is true for the case of Latin America. Indeed, the results reported in this paper suggest that Latin American artists born after 1920 did their best work at a significantly older age than their colleagues from earlier cohorts. The analysis of art as an investment is based on the estimation of hedonic price indexes, and indicates that Latin American art has had a relatively high rate of return indeed much higher than that of other type of paintings. The results also indicate that returns on Latin American art have a very low degree of correlation that is, a very low beta relative to an international portfolio comprised of equities. This means that adding Latin American art will lower the overall risk of an international portfolio.

    ...Galenson's (1997, 2001) pioneering work on creativity patt erns. In Section V I deal w ith Latin American art as an investment. I discu ss methodological issues and I calculate hedoni c price indexes to compute rates of return of di fferent art portfolios. Finally, in Section VI I discuss directions for future research. There is also a data appendix where I provide a list of the...

    /papers/w10302

  • 98% The Reappearing Masterpiece: Ranking American Artists and Art Works of the Late Twentieth Century September 2003
    David W. Galenson

    A survey of the illustrations in textbooks of modern art produces the startling finding that art scholars consider Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty to be the most important individual work made by an American artist during the past 150 years. More generally, quantifying the evidence of the textbooks reveals the source of the pluralism,' or stylistic incoherence, of American art since the late 1960s. A persistently high demand for artistic innovation has produced a regime in which conceptual approaches have predominated. The art world has consequently been flooded by a series of new ideas, usually embodied in individual works, generally made by young artists who have failed to make more than one significant contribution in their careers. The dramatic and monumental Spiral Jetty, made in 1970 by a young artist who was killed soon thereafter while in the process of making his art, has become a symbol for the art of this era.

    Galenson. All rights reserved. Shor t sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission provided that fu ll credit, including © notice, is given to the source. The Reappearing Masterpiece: Ranking American Artists and Art Works of the Late Twentieth Century David W. Galenson NBER Working Paper No. 9935 August 2003 JEL No. J0, J4 ABSTRACT A survey...

    /papers/w9935

  • 98% Conceptual Revolutions in Twentieth-Century Art June 2009
    David Galenson

    Art critics and scholars have acknowledged the breakdown of their explanations and narratives of contemporary art in the face of what they consider the incoherent era of "pluralism" or "postmodernism" that began in the late twentieth century. This failure is in fact a result of their inability to understand the nature of the development of advanced art throughout the entire twentieth century, and particularly the novel behavior of young conceptual innovators in a new market environment. The rise of a competitive market for advanced art in the late nineteenth century freed artists from the constraint of having to satisfy powerful patrons, and gave them unprecedented freedom to innovate. As the rewards for radical and conspicuous innovation increased, conceptual artists could respond to these incentives more quickly and decisively than their experimental counterparts. Early in the twentieth century, the young conceptual genius Pablo Picasso initiated two new practices, by alternating styles at will and inventing a new artistic genre, that became basic elements of the art of a series of later conceptual innovators. By the late twentieth century, extensions of these practices had led to the emergence of important individual artists whose work appeared to have no unified style, and to the balkanization of advanced art, as the dominance of painting gave way before novel uses of old genres and the creation of many new ones. Understanding not only contemporary art, but the art of the past century as a whole, will require art scholars to abandon their outmoded insistence on analyzing art in terms of style, and to recognize the many novel patterns of behavior that have been created over the course of the past century by young conceptual innovators.

    ...Galenson. All rights reserved. Short sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission provided that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. Conceptual Revolutions in Twentieth-Century Art David Galenson NBER Working Paper No. 15073 June 2009 JEL No. Z1,Z11 ABSTRACT Art critics and scholars have acknowledged the breakdown of their...

    /papers/w15073

  • 98% Two Paths to Abstract Art: Kandinsky and Malevich August 2006
    David W. Galenson

    Wassily Kandinsky and Kazimir Malevich were both great Russian painters who became pioneers of abstract art during the second decade of the twentieth century. Yet the forms of their art differed radically, as did their artistic methods and goals. Kandinsky, an experimental artist, approached abstraction tentatively and visually, by gradually and progressively concealing forms drawn from nature, whereas Malevich, a conceptual innovator, plunged precipitously into abstraction, by creating symbolic elements that had no representational origins. The conceptual Malevich also made his greatest innovations considerably earlier in his life than the experimental Kandinsky. Interestingly, at the age of 50 Kandinsky wrote an essay that clearly described these two categories of artist, contrasting the facile and protean young virtuoso with the single-minded individual who matured more slowly but was ultimately more original.

    ...David W. Galenson. All rights reserved. Short sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission provided that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. Two Paths to Abstract Art: Kandinsky and Malevich David W. Galenson NBER Working Paper No. 12403 July 2006 JEL No. ABSTRACT Wassily Kandinsky and Kazimir Malevich were both great Russian...

    /papers/w12403

  • 98% Aggregative Growth Trends: Analysis 1962
    G. Warren Nutter, Israel Borenstein, Adam Kaufman
    in Growth of Industrial Production in the Soviet Union, G. Warren Nutter assisted by Israel Borenstein and Adam Kaufman

    ...Galenson's indexes cover the seven industries shown in Table 42; for years beginning with 1932 and generally ending with 1936, they alsO cover four industries producing durable producer goods (see Galenson, Labor Productivity, p. 234). 4177 AGGREGATIVE GROWTH TRENDS: TABLE 43 COMPARISON OF NBER AND HODOMAN INDEXES OF LABOR INPUTS INTO SOVIET INDUSTRY, BENCHMARK YEARS, 1928—1950 MAN-YEARS...

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  • 98% The Greatest Artists of the Twentieth Century December 2005
    David Galenson

    Pablo Picasso was by far the greatest artist of the 20th century: textbooks of art history contain more than twice as many illustrations of his work as of that of his closest rival, Henri Matisse. A survey of textbooks also identifies Jackson Pollock as the greatest American artist, by a narrow margin over Andy Warhol. The 15 greatest artists of the century include nine conceptual innovators, who made their greatest contributions early in their lives, in their 20s and 30s, and six experimental innovators, who generally did their greatest work in their 40s and 50s - and even, in the case of Mondrian, in his 70s. Contrary to the belief of many humanists, the textbooks show that in art, as in all intellectual activities, importance is determined by innovation.

    Galenson. All rights reserved. Short sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission provided that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. The Greatest Artists of the Twentieth Century David W. Galenson NBER Working Paper No. 11899 December 2005 JEL No. J0, J1 ABSTRACT Pablo Picasso was by far the greatest artist of the 20th century...

    /papers/w11899

  • 98% The Most Important Works of Art of the Twentieth Century February 2006
    David W. Galenson

    A survey of art history textbooks identifies and ranks the eight most important works of the 20th century. The most important painting of the century was Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, executed by Picasso at the age of 26, which began the development of Cubism. Among the other seven works, a collage, an earthwork, and a ready-made all represent new genres that had not existed at the start of the century. All eight works were made by conceptual artists, at a median age of just 32. The results underline the importance of young conceptual innovators, who made radical departures from existing conventions, in the advanced art of the century. Four of the eight works were made by Picasso and Marcel Duchamp, and this highlights the importance of the versatile conceptual innovators who became a prominent feature of twentieth-century art.

    ...W. Galenson. All rights reserved. Short sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission provided that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. The Most Important Works of Art of the Twentieth Century David W. Galenson NBER Working Paper No. 12058 February 2006 JEL No. J0, J4 ABSTRACT A survey of art history textbooks identifies and...

    /papers/w12058

  • 98% Precedence and Wealth: Evidence from Nineteenth-Century Utah January 1992
    David W. Galenson, Clayne L. Pope
    in Strategic Factors in Nineteenth Century American Economic History: A Volume to Honor Robert W. Fogel, Claudia Goldin and Hugh Rockoff, editors

    Galenson, Clayne L. Pope Chapter URL: https://www.nber.org/chapters/c6963 Chapter pages in book: (p. 225 - 241) 7 Precedence and Wealth Evidence from Nineteenth-Century Utah David W. Galenson and Clayne L. Pope 7.1 Introduction Persistence rates have been widely used by social historians to study geographic and social mobility.I A closely related measure, the precedence rate, has not received...

    /chapters/c6963

  • 98% Innovators: Architects January 2010
    David W. Galenson

    Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier, and Frank Gehry were experimental architects: all worked visually, and arrived at their designs by discovering forms as they sketched. Their styles evolved gradually over long periods, and all three produced the buildings that are generally considered their greatest masterpieces after the age of 60. In contrast, Maya Lin is a conceptual architect: her designs originate in ideas, and they arrive fully formed. The work that dominates her career, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, was designed as an assignment for a course she took during her senior year of college. The dominance of a single early work makes Lin's career comparable to those of a number of precocious conceptual innovators in other arts, including the painter Paul Sérusier, the sculptor Meret Oppenheim, the novelist J.D. Salinger, and the poet Allen Ginsberg.

    ...W. Galenson. All rights reserved. Short sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission provided that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. Innovators: Architects David W. Galenson NBER Working Paper No. 15661 January 2010 JEL No. A0 ABSTRACT Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier, and Frank Gehry were experimental architects: all worked...

    /papers/w15661

  • 98% Young Geniuses and Old Masters: The Life Cycles of Great Artists from Masaccio to Jasper Johns July 2001
    David W. Galenson, Robert Jensen

    There have been two very different life cycles for great artists: some have made their greatest contributions very early in their careers, whereas others have produced their best work late in their lives. These two patterns have been associated with different working methods, as art's young geniuses have worked deductively to make conceptual innovations, while its old masters have worked inductively, to innovate experimentally. We demonstrate the value of this typology by considering the careers of four great conceptual innovators - Masaccio, Raphael, Picasso, and Johns - and five great experimental innovators - Michelangelo, Titian, Rembrandt, C‚zanne, and Pollock. Recognition of the effect of an artist's methods on the timing of his contribution appears to solve a puzzle that has been recognized by art historians for more than a century.

    Galenson and Robert Jensen. All rights reserved. Short sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission provided that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. Young Geniuses and Old Masters: The Life Cycles of Great Artists from Masaccio to Jasper Johns David W. Galenson and Robert Jensen NBER Working Paper No. 8368 July 2001 There have...

    /papers/w8368

  • 98% From "White Christmas" to Sgt. Pepper: The Conceptual Revolution in Popular Music August 2007
    David Galenson

    Irving Berlin, Cole Porter, and other songwriters of the Golden Era wrote popular songs that treated common topics clearly and simply. During the mid-1960s Bob Dylan, John Lennon, and Paul McCartney created a new kind of popular music that was personal and often obscure. This shift, which transformed popular music from an experimental into a conceptual art, produced a distinct change in the creative life cycles of songwriters. Golden Era songwriters were generally at their best during their 30s and 40s, whereas since the mid-'60s popular songwriters have consistently done their best work during their 20s. The revolution in popular music occurred at a time when young innovators were making similar transformations in other arts: Jean-Luc Godard and his fellow New Wave directors created a conceptual revolution in film in the early '60s, just as Andy Warhol and other Pop artists made painting a conceptual activity.

    ...Galenson. All rights reserved. Short sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission provided that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. From "White Christmas" to Sgt. Pepper: The Conceptual Revolution in Popular Music David Galenson NBER Working Paper No. 13308 August 2007 JEL No. J01 ABSTRACT Irving Berlin, Cole Porter, and other...

    /papers/w13308

  • 97% Do the Young British Artists Rule (or: Has London Stolen the Idea of Postmodern Art from New York?): Evidence from the Auction Market October 2005
    David W. Galenson

    In recent years, some English critics have claimed that Damien Hirst and his fellow young British artists have made London the new center of the advanced art world. As Hirst reaches the age of 40, this paper uses auction results to measure the importance of the YBAs compared to their American peers. Auction prices show that the YBAs do rule over their American rivals: both Hirst and the English painter Chris Ofili have had individual works sell for more than $1 million, a level no American artist under 40 has achieved. Whether London can continue its success will depend in part on whether it can match New York's ability to attract important artists born in other countries.

    ...W. Galenson. All rights reserved. Short sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission provided that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. Do the Young British Artists Rule (or: Has London Stolen the Idea of Postmodern Art from New York?): Evidence from the Auction Market David W. Galenson NBER Working Paper No. 11715 October 2005...

    /papers/w11715

  • 97% Painting by Proxy: The Conceptual Artist as Manufacturer December 2006
    David W. Galenson

    In 1958, the French philosopher Etienne Gilson observed that "painters are related to manual laborers by a deep-rooted affinity that nothing can eliminate," because painting was the one art in which the person who conceives the work is also necessarily the person who executes it. Conceptual innovators promptly proved Gilson wrong, however, by eliminating the touch of the artist from their paintings: in 1960 the French artist Yves Klein began using "living brushes" - nude models covered with paint - to execute his paintings, and in 1963 Andy Warhol began having his assistant Gerard Malanga silkscreen his canvases. Today many leading artists do not touch their own paintings, and some never see them. This paper traces the innovations that allowed a complete separation between the conception and execution of paintings. The foundation of this separation was laid long before the 20th century, by conceptual Old Masters including Raphael and Rubens, who employed teams of assistants to produce their paintings, but artists began exploring its logical limits during the conceptual revolution of the 1960s and beyond. Thus by the end of the twentieth century Jeff Koons explained that he did not participate in the work of painting his canvases because he believed it would interfere with his growth as an artist, and Damien Hirst defended his practice of having his paintings made by assistants on the grounds that their paintings were better than his. Eliminating the touch of the artist from painting is yet another way in which conceptual innovators transformed art in the twentieth century.

    ...W. Galenson. All rights reserved. Short sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission provided that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. Painting by Proxy: The Conceptual Artist as Manufacturer David W. Galenson NBER Working Paper No. 12714 December 2006 JEL No. J0 ABSTRACT In 1958, the French philosopher Etienne Gilson observed...

    /papers/w12714

  • 97% And Now for Something Completely Different: The Versatility of Conceptual Innovators February 2006
    David W. Galenson

    Art scholars have puzzled over the behavior of Pablo Picasso, Gerhard Richter, and Sigmar Polke - important modern painters who have made frequent and abrupt changes of style. Yet in each case the scholars have assumed this behavior to be idiosyncratic, and have consequently failed to recognize its common basis. Versatility is in fact often a characteristic of conceptual innovators, whose ability to solve specific problems can free them to pursue new goals. This contrasts sharply with the practice of experimental artists, whose inability to achieve their goals often ties them to a single style for a whole career. The phenomenon of the conceptual innovator who produces diverse innovations is an important feature of twentieth-century art; Picasso was the prototype, and he was followed by a series of others, from Marcel Duchamp through Damien Hirst. Versatility has furthermore been a characteristic not only of modern conceptual painters, but also of conceptual innovators in other arts, and conceptual scholars. Recognizing the common basis of this behavior increases our understanding of human creativity.

    Galenson. All rights reserved. Short sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission provided that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. And Now for Something Completely Different: The Versatility of Conceptual Innovators David W. Galenson NBER Working Paper No. 12034 February 2006 JEL No. ABSTRACT Art scholars have puzzled over...

    /papers/w12034

  • 97% From the New Wave to the New Hollywood: The Life Cycles of Important Movie Directors from Godard and Truffaut to Spielberg and Eastwood June 2008
    David Galenson, Joshua Kotin

    Two great movie directors were both born in 1930. One of them, Jean-Luc Godard, revolutionized filmmaking during his 30s, and declined in creativity thereafter. In contrast, Clint Eastwood did not direct his first movie until he had passed the age of 40, and did not emerge as an important director until after 60. This dramatic difference in life cycles was not accidental, but was a characteristic example of a pattern that has been identified across the arts: Godard was a conceptual innovator who peaked early, whereas Eastwood was an experimental innovator who improved with experience. This paper examines the goals, methods, and creative life cycles of Godard, Eastwood, and eight other directors who were the most important filmmakers of the second half of the twentieth century. Francis Ford Coppola, Stanley Kubrick, Stephen Spielberg, and François Truffaut join Godard in the category of conceptual young geniuses, while Woody Allen, Robert Altman, John Cassavetes, and Martin Scorsese are classed with Eastwood as experimental old masters. In an era in which conceptual innovators have dominated a number of artistic activities, the strong representation of experimental innovators among the greatest film directors is an interesting phenomenon.

    ...Galenson. All rights reserved. Short sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission provided that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. From the New Wave to the New Hollywood: The Life Cycles of Important Movie Directors from Godard and Truffaut to Spielberg and Eastwood David Galenson NBER Working Paper No. 14150 June 2008 JEL No.

    /papers/w14150

  • 97% Wisdom and Creativity in Old Age: Lessons from the Impressionists June 2007
    David W. Galenson

    Psychologists have not considered wisdom and creativity to be closely associated. This reflects their failure to recognize that creativity is not exclusively the result of bold discoveries by young conceptual innovators. Important advances can equally be made by older, experimental innovators. Yet we have had no examination of why some experimental artists have remained creative much later in their lives than others. Considering the major artists who worked together during the first decade of Impressionism, this paper compares the attitudes and practices of two important experimental innovators who made significant contributions after the age of 50 with two of their colleagues whose creativity failed to persist past 50. Unlike Pissarro and Renoir, who reacted to adversity in mid-career by attempting to emulate the methods of conceptual artists, Cézanne and Monet adopted elements of other artists' approaches while maintaining their own experimental methods and goals. For both Cézanne and Monet, recognizing how they themselves learned was a key to turning experience into wisdom. Their greatness in old age appears to have been a product of their understanding that although the improvement in their art might be painstaking and slow, over long periods its cumulative effect could be very great.

    ...W. Galenson. All rights reserved. Short sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission provided that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. Wisdom and Creativity in Old Age: Lessons from the Impressionists David W. Galenson NBER Working Paper No. 13190 June 2007 JEL No. J01 ABSTRACT Psychologists have not considered wisdom and...

    /papers/w13190

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